The government of the Russian Federation views bio- and nanotechnology as key elements of the national technology sector and among the most competitive industries globally.
The Russian corporation of nanotechnology established in 2007 is the key coordinator of the government policies in the sphere of nanotechnology.
In Russia legal and regulatory practice the term “nanotechnologies” refers to both nanoscience and nanotechnology and sometimes also nanoindustry (business and production areas using nanotechnologies).
Main objectives of Rusnano:
• The corporation acts as co-investor in nanotechnology projects with significant economic or social potential. Financial participation of the corporation at the early stages of the project reduces the risks of its partners – private investors.
• The corporation participates in establishment of nanotechnologies infrastructure (nanotechnology centers of excellence, business incubators, early investment funds).
• The corporation develops educational and scientific programs and popularizes research and development activities in the field of nanotechnology.
• The corporation promotes cooperation with leading international nanotechnology centers and holds annual international nanotechnology forum in Russia.
For reference: the term nanotechnologies was created by Norio Taniguchi in 1974. At first it was hyphenated Nano-Technology and the author used quotation marks for it as well. International research clearly distinguishes between nanoscience and nanotechnology. For nanoscience the term nanoscale science is also used.
Achievements in the nanotechnology sector from 2004 to 2008:
• Development of coordination program in nanotechnolgies and nanomaterials sphere in 2006
• Presidential initiative “Nanoindustry development strategy”
• Government council on nanotechnolgies, Federal target program and Program 2015
List of enterprises and organizations working in the nanotechnologies sector in Russia.
2. Special economic zones and technology parks
To provide support for implementation of projects in nano-, bio- and information technologies sector (technologies) the government has created special economic zones and technology parks.
In 2006–2010 technology parks are planned for the territories of Moscow, Novosibirsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Kaluga, Tumen, Kemerovo regions, the Republic of Tatarstan and St. Petersburg.
- Industrial production SEZ s(in the Lipetsk region and the Republic Tatarstan)
- Technology implementation SEZs (in St. Petersburg, Zelenograd (Moscow Region), in Dubna (Moscow Region), Tomsk (the Tomsk region)
- Tourist and recreational SEZs (in the Kaliningrad region, Krasnodar region, Stavropol, Altai region, the Republic of Altai, the Republic Buryatia, and the Irkutsk region
- Port special economic zones
- Special economic zones in the Kaliningrad region
- Special economic zones in the Magadan area.
Documents regulating the activity of special economic zones.
3. Public joint-stock company Russian Venture Company
Russian Venture Company was established with the purpose of promoting Russian national venture investment industry, development of innovational economic sectors and promotion of Russian technology-intensive projects into the international market.
The key objectives of RVC are as follows:
• Promoting the Russian national venture investment industry
• Significant increase of venture fund financial resources.
The role of RVC in the innovation system is that of a state venture fund through which venture investments are attracted and financial support for the technology sector on the whole is provided.
Investment priorities of venture funds created with the help of RVC are as follows:
• Security and anti-terror campaigns
• Live systems (biotechnologies, medical technologies and medical equipment)
• Nanosystems and materials industry
• Information and telecommunications systems
• Environmental management
• Transport, aviation and space systems
• Energy and energy conservation.
The aggregate amount of the seven venture funds formed with the participation of RVC funds in 2007-2009 will amount to RUB 18.893 billion.
On the whole, RVC will participate in the creation of 10-15 new venture funds with aggregate capital of about RUB 30 billion. These funds will provide venture capital for up to 200 new innovational companies.