Located in East Asia, on the western shore of the Pacific Ocean, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has a land area of about 9.6 million square km, and is the third largest country in the world, next only to Russia and Canada. China has many onshore neighbors, with Russia and Mongolia to the north, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan and India to the west, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam to the south and southeast, and Korea to the east. Across the seas to the east and southeast are Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia and etc.

The distance between the capital Beijing and Tokyo (Japan) and San Francisco (USA)to its east is 1,310 km and 5,800 km respectively; Paris(France) to its west, 5,090 km; Singapore to its south 2,790 km.

China has a marked continental monsoonal climate characterized by great variety. Northerly winds prevail in winter, while southerly winds reign in summer. The four seasons are quite distinct. The rainy season coincides with the hot season. In terms of temperature, the nation can be sectored from south to north into equatorial, tropical, subtropical, warm-temperate, temperate, and cold-temperate zones; in terms of moisture, it can be sectored from southeast to northwest into humid (32 percent of the total land area), semi-humid (15 percent), semi-arid (22 percent) and arid zones (31 percent).

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